Bloom’s Taxonomy first came in 1956. It presents grouping of educational objectives categorized in a continuum from Lower Order Thinking Skills to Higher Order Thinking Skills (Knowledge to evaluation). He identified four principles that inspired the development of the taxonomy, i.e. student behaviours, logical relationships among the categories, informed by current understanding of psychological processes and that it describe rather than impose value judgement. It was revised later in 2000 by Anderson making it easier to recognize as each level were given sub-levels that can be easily located or tracked. Both of these taxonomies are focused within the cognitive domain.
Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy is a more developed version of the original taking into consideration the interrelation of the three domains, the ever-evolving classroom (digital) and others factors that influence learning.
The first time I was asked to make a lesson plan long time ago (Okay, fine… decades ago), I spent a grand time identifying my main objectives. We were asked to write down three for each domain (cognitive, affective and psychomotor). It was explained beforehand that cognitive refers to the main content and that we have to write it starting with – “to understand.” Affective objective can start with – “to appreciate…” highlighting the emotional/attitudinal aspect; while psychomotor can start with – “to make (something that would denote action).” It was taken rather literally and the three were clearly identified as different and “away” from each other. The same was developed later by utilizing the mnemonic – SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time-bound).
Technology was not included. When it eventually arrived, it was treated more of a content rather than a tool or medium. So, we saw computers (FDPO – for display purposes only) inside air-conditioned rooms where NO students were allowed. We touched it only twice the whole year and only certain “expert teachers” can go inside and operate it for fear of breaking it down.
It’s fun to go back and ponder on how I witnessed the evolution of teaching-learning process in various situations. Rubrics, like the ones presented in the article are like erasers dimming some of the teachers’ roles inside the classrooms while creating new ones. Likewise, it is exciting to know how further technological developments will define us – teachers in the near future.